Ultrasonic pulse velocity was used to evaluate these areas for internal defects. The direct arrival of compression waves generated by a source (transmitter) on one face of a concrete structure is used in UPV.
This is an effective way to estimate concrete quality by measuring the wave velocity at a receiver (on another face of the concrete structure). The presence of defects would slow the speed of ultrasonic transmission and lessen the amplitude of the received signal.
In general, the concrete in most of the surveyed areas was found to be in good condition.
The east side of the east foundation was an exception, with a significant area of lower UPV values indicating that the concrete is in poor condition and should be targeted for further investigation. Unlike Xradar's GPR, which collects data continuously, static points are collected over a concrete surface and then joined together to build an entire assessment model, as shown in below.
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